References for further reading

Should you wish to explore the fascinating world of Electrostatic speakers further there are three books I can personally recommend.

Electroacoustics by Prof. F.V. Hunt

This book was originally written in 1952 but is now available as a reprint. It has a unique place in loudspeaker history as it was the first book which proved mathematically that push-pull electrostatics were capable of producing zero distortion. From this proof, Peter Walker went on to design the Quad ESL 57. This book is not therefore advisable if your not into complex mathematics. However the book does talk about all the other types of loudspeaker designs which are available and it is surprising when you read this book just how few new innovations have been made since the mid fifties. The only one I can think of is the 'flat' speaker which has recently received a lot of attention. The book also devotes about the first 25% of itself to the history of electroacoustics and highlights key points in the development of loudspeakers. This book is highly recommended for those people wishing to find out how we arrived at some of the designs we currently have and learn some of the mathematical theory behind loudspeaker design. The book is probably the most detailed book on the subject that you will ever come across with thousands of references to research papers and personal anecdotes by the author.

Electrostatic Loudspeaker Design Cookbook by Roger Sanders

This book is essentially for the hobbyist who wants to gain a little understanding of the principles behind electrostatic speakers and build a speaker for themselves. The book has several designs of electrostatic speaker including a hybrid design which uses a conventional bass cone driver and an electrostatic driver for mid/high frequencies.

Electrostatic Loudspeaker : Design and Construction by Ronald Wagner

This is probably the best book for people interested in the electrostatic speaker and who want to build their own. The book goes into slightly more detail than the Sanders book about electrostatic principles and details a speaker project in great detail. The speaker project is interesting from a design point of view as the speaker panels are sectionalised such that each panel has the majority of its area operating as the bass driver with a 2 inch wide strip down the side of the diaphragm being connected as mid and treble. Each panel in the speaker is 2 foot square and there are two panels per speaker making each speaker about 2 foot wide and 4 foot tall.

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